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If a country house is not served by a centralized sewer system, then there is a need to equip an autonomous sewer for a summer residence.
And here you have to choose one of two options:
- ordinary cesspool;
- a facility in which wastewater is treated mechanically and biologically.
We focus on the first option - a simple drive, in which wastewater is collected and, when they reach a certain point, a sewage machine is called up, which pumps them out.
Cesspool without bottom
The first method of constructing a cesspool for a summer residence is a pit without a bottom, when the waste is directly in contact with the soil, liquid fractions penetrate deep into the earth, and solid fractions are pressed. When such a hole is filled, it is covered with earth and in another place they dig a new one. However, the simplicity of the device is associated with a large number of disadvantages. Therefore, a special regulatory act limits the possibility of installing such pits only when the volume of wastewater per day does not exceed 1 m3. The effluents entering the soil are exposed to bacteria that purify the water, but if the volume of the effluent exceeds the set limit, then nature cannot cope, and pollution occurs.
You can not make a pit without a bottom if groundwater comes close to the surface, as this will certainly cause their pollution, which means that dirty water will also get into nearby wells. In general, if there is a well within a radius of 30 m, a cesspool is not recommended. In addition, even a filled pit without a bottom is often a source of unpleasant odor in the area.
A more environmentally friendly device will be a sealed cesspool. In today's conditions, the water consumption on the site is quite significant due to tap water, the use of showers, food waste, etc. (not to mention sewage waste itself), so the option with a sealed pit is much preferable.
The material for it can be brick, concrete, reinforced concrete rings with a bottom. A pit composed of these materials must be properly waterproofed. If you don’t want to mess with the pit device a lot, then you can simplify the task and purchase a ready-made plastic container, to which the necessary pipes are brought.
Site requirements for a cesspool
It should be convenient to drive to the chosen place, because you will have to periodically call the sewer machine for cleaning, and it differs in rather large dimensions.
Some requirements for the location of the cesspool were described above, we add that it should be no closer than 5 m from the shelter and fruit trees, as well as chicken coops, pigsties, and cowsheds. The distance to the fence should be at least 2 meters. Always position the pit diagonally to a well or other water intake located nearby (but not closer than 30 m).
The device of a cesspool in the country
Getting to the device pit, it is important to determine its minimum required size. It is usually assumed that for 1 person a pit with a volume of at least 0.5 m is needed3. When the country house has a bathroom and water heating devices, then about 150 -180 liters of water per day will be spent on 1 person.
Accordingly, a medium-sized family living permanently in the country will need a cesspool of approx. 8 m3which will have to be cleaned every 2 weeks.
It has already been mentioned that the walls of the pit can be laid out with different materials (brick, concrete, etc.), they are necessarily plastered, reinforced, and a layer of bitumen is applied. The outer side of the walls is waterproofed with a 25-cm layer of oily clay. The bottom, also covered with a layer of clay, should have a slope towards the hatch. From above, the bottom is poured with concrete or wooden flooring is made.
Ready-made containers made of plastic are distinguished by higher tightness compared to wells. Eurocubs having a metal crate and a plastic pallet are very convenient for the device of a sump.
Their main purpose is the storage of liquids during transportation, but they do an excellent job with the function of a sump.
The sump should be equipped with a ventilation riser (d = 100 mm), which rises at least 70 cm from the ground. At the final stage, pipes (usually 100 mm PVC pipes) are brought to the sump, which should be insulated if the pipeline passes in the freezing zone of the soil, i.e. no deeper than 0.8-1.2 m, if deeper, then you can do without insulation.
Thus, a sealed cesspool does not pollute the soil and groundwater, it can be installed at any depth regardless of the occurrence of groundwater and the nature of the soil. As for the possible shortcomings, in case of violation of the sealing of the walls and the lid, of the pit, of course, an unpleasant smell will be felt, in addition, sewage will seep into the ground.
A cesspool - a necessity for today
In order not to encounter such problems, it is necessary to approach the device of the cesspool responsibly and achieve high-quality performance of all work.