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How to grow a watermelon in a greenhouse: formation scheme, pinching, care

How to grow a watermelon in a greenhouse: formation scheme, pinching, care


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Warm and generous August brings an abundance of fruits and vegetables. There is a demand for imported watermelons in the markets. And some prudent dacha owners grow watermelons in their greenhouses. There are a lot of worries with this crop in the conditions of central Russia, but having picked up varieties and fulfilling the requirements of agricultural technology, they get delicious fruits at the end of summer.

Growing conditions

Before growing a watermelon in a greenhouse in the Moscow region, the Urals and Siberia, you need to familiarize yourself with the new agricultural technology.

  • Watermelons are propagated by seedlings;
  • Early maturing varieties are sown;
  • The gardener needs to carefully study how to properly grow watermelons in a greenhouse: culture requirements for temperature, humidity and soil;
  • A successful harvest of melons in regions with a short warm period implies, in addition to guaranteed protection against return frosts, limiting fruits on the bush, as well as competent planting and caring for watermelons in a greenhouse.

Important! The temperature is maintained at 25-30 0C on sunny days, on cloudy days - 21-22 0C. At night, the greenhouse must be at least 18 ° C.

How to prepare a greenhouse

The greenhouse is carefully prepared for growing watermelons.

  • In a cloudy summer, additional lighting is installed with LB-40 fluorescent lamps. They are especially useful when planting watermelons in a polycarbonate greenhouse. For a medium-sized greenhouse with a height of 2 m, it is enough to buy four lighting fixtures;
  • The greenhouse should be located in a spacious place so that no shadows from buildings or trees fall on it from the south and southwest;
  • It is possible to safely grow a watermelon in the country in a greenhouse if it is equipped with a trouble-free ventilation system. Watermelons are native to the deserts of South Africa, so the high humidity, more than 60%, which is usually observed in greenhouses, will harm them;
  • Due to the drought tolerance of the culture, you need to know what you can plant watermelons with in a greenhouse. Melons, tomatoes, and bell peppers are good neighbors for watermelons;
  • In joint plantings, watermelons are planted on the north side of the greenhouse. Tied up, they will shade undersized crops with their dense leafy lashes;
  • It is better to prepare the land for growing watermelons in a greenhouse in the fall. Put grass, compost, on top of a bucket of humus and sand per 1 sq. m.

Attention! In a greenhouse, watermelons can be tied to one trellis with tomatoes.

The best varieties

There are several basic requirements for watermelons grown in the country in a greenhouse:

  • Early ripening varieties of watermelons are planted, which in a short period of hot weather can fill with sweet juice;
  • Plants can withstand sudden temperature changes per day;
  • Watermelons are resistant to cold snaps, which can last up to 10 days.

Watermelons designed for greenhouses work well. The varieties bred for the southern regions are not worth buying. They choose hybrids and varieties of domestic and foreign selection for greenhouses, as well as well-established old ones, like the famous Ogonyok. For four months of growing season in the greenhouse, Krimstar, Crimson Sweet, Suga Baby, Florida, Kai f1, Style, Pamyat Kholodova, Skorik, Charleston f1 near Moscow, Supershearny Dyutina, Gift to the North f1, Rafinad, Sibiryak, Pannonia f1 and some other varieties ripen.

Twinkle

Bred in 1960, intended for the center of the country, Siberia and the Far East. Every year the variety is grown in gardens and does not give up its positions. Suitable for growing watermelons in polycarbonate greenhouses. Fruits weighing 1-1.5 kg ripen in 75-85 days. The skin is thin but firm. The pulp is bright red, sweet. Moderately susceptible to fungal diseases and easily tolerates summer cold snaps. The originator is the Sortsemovosch association.

Kai f1

The hybrid was specially bred for growing in greenhouses in northern European regions with low lighting levels and low temperatures. Distributed in Finland and Sweden. Fast-growing early ripening watermelon gives elongated fruits for 70-75 days. The crust is thin, there are few seeds in the fragrant, sweet, raspberry-colored pulp. The fruits weigh 7-10 kg.

Sibiryak-97

The unique variety was created by the Ural breeders. During field trials, being in the phases of emergence and two true leaves, the plant showed resistance to subzero temperatures: up to -6 degrees. Fruit weight with sweet, crumbly, red pulp reaches 4-5 kg. The thin crust is dark green, with subtle dark stripes on it. Ripens in a greenhouse in 70-80 days.

Gift to the North f1

An early maturing greenhouse variety with a stable yield. Watermelons weighing up to 10 kg ripen in 75-85 days. The flesh under a green crust with darker stripes is red, sugary, crunchy. The watermelon withstands transportation well, is little affected by fungal diseases. The variety tolerates frost, even stagnation of water near the root is not afraid of it.

Skorik

The variety has been included in the State Register since 1997, originator: Research Institute of Vegetable and Melon Growing in Astrakhan. Ultra-early watermelon - ripens after 65 days of vegetation. Small round fruits, 1.5-2 kg, very sweet. Store in a cold place for more than 2 months. Belongs to long-leaved watermelons. The greenhouse needs shaping: you need to pinch.

Krimstar

Ideal for a greenhouse. The variety of the Japanese company Sakata ripens in the shortest possible time: in 55 days. Watermelons are rounded, growing with an average weight of 5-8 kg. The pulp is red, 12% sugar content. The variety is adapted to unfavorable weather and resistant to anthracnose. The fruits can withstand long-distance transportation and are stored for a long time.

Ultra early

An excellent variety for growing watermelons in a polycarbonate greenhouse: increased resistance to fungal diseases, as well as a compact bush. The plant sprouts few lateral shoots. The variety is early ripening: round fruits weighing 4-6 kg ripen in 80 days. The crust is dark green with blurred light spots and stripes. The pulp is raspberry, tender, tasty.

Growing seedlings

Before you start growing watermelons in polycarbonate greenhouses, you need to buy or prepare seedlings yourself. They choose an early-ripening variety, acquire soil and containers for seedlings with sides of 8-10 cm and the same depth. Seeds are sown for seedlings for unheated greenhouses in early May. In heated greenhouses, watermelons are planted or sown with seeds in February-March. It is possible to sow seeds in the ground in greenhouses without heating, on warm ridges, in April.

Warning! The roots of watermelons do not tolerate transplanting well, so a separate pot is needed for each plant.

Soil preparation

Since a high-quality crop must be obtained from a southern crop in a greenhouse, the plant is maintained with a balanced amount of fertilizer, starting with the enrichment of the soil for seedlings. The purchased soil is already with minerals, nothing is added to it. Cucumber soil is suitable for watermelons. If in the fall they took care of the garden soil for seedlings and mixed with humus in a ratio of 1: 3, add 3 tbsp to the bucket of the mixture. tablespoons of superphosphate, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of potassium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, a glass of wood ash.

Seed preparation

The hard rind of the watermelon seeds must be softened so that the seed hatches. Sprout watermelon seeds in several ways:

  • Spread the seeds on a damp cloth until a sprout appears;
  • The seeds are soaked in warm water for a day;
  • Heat treatment is used: they put the seeds in cloth bags, prepare two containers with hot and cold water. First, the bag is placed in cold water for a few seconds, then in hot water for 2 seconds. This is repeated three times;
  • Sprouted seeds are placed in pots one at a time, spreading them sprout up, and swollen ones - two or three to one side.

Seedling care

Cover the cups with plastic wrap to keep the soil moist. Before the sprouts appear, the temperature must be maintained at least 23-25 0C. Seeds germinate in 5-10 days. With the appearance of sprouts, the film is removed and the temperature is slightly lowered: 20 degrees during the day and 18 at night. The seedlings are well lit so that the sprouts do not stretch out. In cloudy weather, additional lighting is turned on - up to 12-14 hours a day.

  • If the seedlings are in small pots, arrange them so that the leaves do not touch;
  • Watered with moderately warm, settled water;
  • After 10-12 days, the sprouts are fed with complex mineral fertilizers according to the instructions. The second feeding is carried out after 10 days.

Features of greenhouse care

Seedlings are planted in a greenhouse in a month. In an unheated shelter, watermelons, which have 4-5 leaves, are transferred with the establishment of warm weather: 20 0With daytime and no frost at night, the earth warmed up to 14-15 0C. Planting watermelons in the greenhouse is carried out in warm beds. The distance between the holes is 80-100 cm. In the first days, if the weather is cool, low arcs are installed over the beds of watermelons and the film is stretched.

The device of the beds

If the land for the greenhouse was prepared in the fall, another layer of fertile soil is applied on top and young watermelons are planted in the holes. Remove from the pots carefully, without exposing the roots. To do this, a few hours before planting, the plants are watered abundantly.

Warm beds are important in caring for watermelons in a greenhouse, because plants of any variety are capricious and delicate. If the beds are not ready, the top layer of soil in the greenhouse is removed. From below they put compost or caked hay, straw, cover it with humus on top and fill the area with hot water. After 4-6 days, a fertile soil layer is applied, mixed with 3 tbsp. spoons of nitrophoska and 1 tbsp. spoon of superphosphate per 1 sq. m, and seedlings are planted. Sand is added to clay soils for looseness.

Formation

The plants are constantly looked after. During the cultivation of watermelons in the greenhouse, a bush is formed.

  • The soil is loosened, weeds are removed;
  • The bushes are spud to increase the number of roots;
  • As soon as female flowers appear, the lashes are pinched;
  • New lashes are removed. Grassing watermelons in the greenhouse is necessary to avoid thickening and normalize fruiting;
  • Sprinkle with lukewarm water. Before flowering - three times a week, later once a week, without moisturizing the base of the stem and leaves;
  • Fertilize every 10 days, of choice, with potassium humate, 20 g of ammonium nitrate per bucket of water or a mineral complex;
  • According to the scheme for the formation of a watermelon in a greenhouse, when the ovaries grow the size of a plum, one is left on each of the lashes. Three sheets after the ovary, pinch the lash. There should be no more than three fruits on one root.

Pollination

With the appearance of male flowers that quickly fade, they rush to manually pollinate female flowers in the greenhouse. The flower is picked and applied with anthers to the stigmas on the female flower. All female flowers are pollinated, and then the best ovaries are selected.

Advice! Greenhouse air must be dry. Make sure that the humidity level does not exceed 60-65%. Then they ventilate, but without drafts.

Lash garter

Growing watermelons on a trellis in greenhouses is a better care option than developing lashes in a spread. The plant receives more light, the leaves are ventilated, and there are fewer prerequisites for diseases. As the lashes grow, they are tied to trellises. Also attached to the supports in the greenhouse are nets for watermelon ovaries. The tensioning schemes are simple, you need to make sure that the lashes are given a place to develop freely.

Culture will have to be given maximum attention. Properly grown fruits will be sweet and will delight gardeners.

Testimonials

Evgeny, 30 years old, Nizhny Novgorod

We grow watermelons in a partially heated greenhouse along with tomatoes. They took different varieties. Siberian liked the most: large, sweet. Grew up to 3 kg. The rest were 1.5 kg each.

Olga Mikhailovna, 53 years old, Iskitim

In a heated greenhouse, melons are good. You just need to make sure that condensation does not form. I tie the lashes to the trellises, and put the watermelons on the shelves. To grow more, you need to leave one ovary on the lash.

Vladimir Osipovich, 58 years old, Dubna

By chance, a friend gave watermelon seedlings, it turned out to be superfluous. Since then, for five years now, its own melon in the greenhouse. Up to 20 watermelons ripen per season. For top dressing I use complex fertilizers.


Watch the video: Growing Watermelons in the UK (May 2022).

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