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Rochefort grapes bred in 2002 by E.G. Pavlovsky. This variety was obtained in a complex way: pollination of Talisman Muscat with Cardinal grape pollen. Although Rochefort is a new variety, its unpretentiousness and taste contribute to its spread in Russia.
A detailed description of the Rochefort variety is as follows:
- cone-shaped bunch;
- bunch weight from 0.5 to 1 kg;
- oval fruit shape;
- berry size 2.6x2.8 cm;
- berry weight from 10 to 13 g;
- fruit color from reddish to black;
- frost resistance up to -21 ° С.
Important! The color of the grapes depends on the degree of ripeness. Overripe berries are characterized by black color.
You can assess the external characteristics of the Rochefort variety from the photo:
The vine grows up to 135 cm. Ripening of the berries occurs along the entire length of the vine. The bunches and fruits are quite large.
Rochefort grapes have the following characteristics:
- sugar content 14-18%;
- acidity 4-7%.
Due to these indicators, the Rochefort variety is considered a benchmark in winemaking. The fruits are distinguished by a harmonious taste and aroma of nutmeg. The pulp is quite fleshy, the skin is firm and crispy. Ripe black bunches can be left on the vine, their taste only improves over time.
Rochefort is an early ripening variety with a growing season of 110-120 days. The grapes begin to bloom in early summer, so the bush is not susceptible to spring cold snaps.
Rochefort grapes have average yield characteristics. From one bush harvested from 4 to 6 kg of grapes. With proper care and favorable weather factors, this figure can reach 10 kg. The variety is self-pollinated, which has a positive effect on yield.
Planting and leaving
You can get a high yield of Rochefort grapes if you follow the rules of planting and caring for the bushes. The grapes are planted in sunny places, a hole is previously prepared under the bush. Further care includes watering, mulching, pruning the vineyard, treating diseases and pests.
Grapes are not particularly picky about the composition of the soil. However, on sandy soil and in the absence of fertilizing, the number of shoots is reduced. The height of the plant is also reduced.
Rochefort grapes prefer sunny areas, when planting next to buildings, they choose the south or southwest side. The grapes require protection from the wind, so there should be no drafts at the planting site.
Advice! Under the vineyard, the depth of the groundwater should be 2 m.
Autumn planting is done in mid-October. In order for the plant to endure the winter cold, it needs additional shelter.
In the spring, when it warms, you can plant seedlings saved from the fall. Cuttings can be grafted onto sleeping stocks. If the Rochefort seedling has already released green shoots, then it is planted only when the soil is finally warmed up and a stable temperature is set.
A few weeks before planting the seedlings of the Rochefort variety, a pit 80 cm deep is formed. A layer of fertile soil and 2 buckets of organic fertilizer are poured at the bottom, which are again covered with earth.
The grape seedling is carefully placed in the soil, covered with earth and a support is placed. Then you need to water the plant with warm water. This planting method is very effective for the Rochefort variety, as the seedlings take root quickly.
Watering and mulching
The grapes require abundant watering during the growing season and the appearance of the ovary. After planting in the ground, a hole is formed up to 25 cm deep and 30 cm in diameter. At first, it is recommended to water it within its limits.
Advice! One Rochefort bush requires from 5 liters of water.
Immediately after planting, the grapes are watered every week. After a month, the frequency of watering is reduced to once every two weeks. In arid climates, you may want to water more frequently. In August, the grapes are also not watered, which improves fruit ripening.
The greatest need for watering is experienced by the grapes when the buds open, after the end of flowering and during the period of active ripening of the fruits. During flowering, Rochefort does not need to be watered to avoid shedding of the inflorescences.
Mulching helps to retain moisture in the soil and prevent weed growth. Straw or sawdust is used as mulch. Mulching will be beneficial in southern regions, while cooling of the root system is more likely to occur in other climates.
Rochefort is pruned in the fall and spring. The maximum load on the bush is 35 buds.
Up to 6-8 eyes are left on each shoot. In autumn, the grapes are pruned before the first frost, after which they are covered for the winter.
In the spring, work is carried out with warming up to + 5 ° С, until sap flow begins. Shoots that have frozen over the winter are subject to removal.
Rochefort grapes are characterized by an average resistance to fungal diseases. One of the most common lesions that affects the bush is powdery mildew. Its fungus penetrates the grape leaf and feeds on the sap of its cells.
Important! Powdery mildew is determined by dry bloom on the leaves.
The disease spreads rapidly and covers inflorescences and stems. Therefore, to combat powdery mildew, you need to take immediate action.
Disease spores develop actively at high humidity. As a result, the grapes lose fruit, inflorescences and leaves. If damaged during fruiting, the berries crack and rot.
An effective remedy for powdery mildew is sulfur, the compounds of which destroy the fungus. Spraying of Rochefort grapes is carried out in the morning or in the evening every 20 days.
To get rid of the disease, 100 g of sulfur are diluted in 10 liters of water. For prevention purposes, a composition is prepared based on 30 g of this substance.
Advice! Any treatment with chemicals is prohibited during the ripening of the bunch.
For preventive purposes, grapes are treated with fungicides (Ridomil, Vectra, copper and iron vitriol, Bordeaux liquid). Purchased products are diluted with water strictly in accordance with the instructions.
The Rochefort variety is distinguished by its susceptibility to phylloxera. It is a small insect that feeds on the roots, leaves and shoots of plants. The size of the phylloxera larvae is 0.5 mm, the adult individual reaches 1 mm.
When the air warms up to + 1 ° C, the phylloxera life cycle begins, which lasts until late autumn. As a result, the root system of the grapes suffers, which leads to the death of the bush.
You can identify the pest by the presence of tubercles and other formations on the roots. The infected vineyard cannot be treated and is completely destroyed. For the next 10 years, it is forbidden to plant grapes in its place.
Therefore, when growing Rochefort grapes, special attention is paid to preventive measures.
Advice! Before planting, purchased seedlings are soaked for 4 hours in Regent's solution.
Parsley can be planted between the rows of Rochefort grapes. According to the observations of winegrowers, this plant scares off phylloxera.
For prevention, grapes are sprayed with fungicides after the appearance of 3 leaves on the shoots. You can use Aktara, On the spot, Confidor and others.
Olga, 56 years old, Kuban
Rochefort is a favorite in our family: it gives a stable large harvest, hangs for a long time, retaining its external and taste qualities. I got it after positive feedback from neighbors, because I wanted to know more about its characteristics. Another plus is that it is not damaged by wasps. There were also no problems with Rochefort's diseases. I carry out the treatment four times: with a closed bud, shoot growth, before and after flowering.
Anna, 35 years old, Krasnodar region
I have been growing Rochefort for several years and have never regretted my choice. The variety gives a stable yield, did not observe peas. It takes about 110 days to mature. The weight of the bunches is more than 1 kg. The weight of the berries reaches 20 g, the flesh is dense, with a nutmeg flavor. The berries are stored for a long time and have a good appearance.
Ivan, 67 years old, Volgograd
Rochefort on the site is distinguished by a beautiful bunch and color of berries. The fruits resemble a little plum, they have a bumpy surface. The grapes are very sweet and contain a lot of sugar. The weight of the bunches is about 800 g. I shoot at the beginning of August, at this time the rest of the grapes are still ripening. I carry out two preventive treatments for diseases, so I don't see any signs of mildew.
The Rochefort variety is distinguished by excellent taste, unpretentiousness and average yield. With good care, you can increase the fruiting of the bush. The vineyard must be treated against diseases and pests.
You can learn about the features of the Rochefort variety from the video: