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Reproduction of sea buckthorn occurs in five ways, each of which has its own difficulties and secrets. It is easier to buy a new seedling, but it is not always possible to find the right variety. In addition, experienced gardeners are not used to looking for easy ways and do everything themselves. In order for the breeding process to be effective, the technology must be strictly followed.
How to propagate sea buckthorn
All existing breeding methods for sea buckthorn are suitable for almost all varieties. However, there are cultures with peculiarities, for example, which do not give growth. Such sea buckthorn is no longer possible to propagate by offspring.
There are five breeding methods in total:
- dividing the bush;
For a tree to bear fruit, it is necessary to propagate male and female sea buckthorn. At least two trees must grow on the site. When there were still few varieties, seeds were more often used for propagation. It is possible to determine whether a seedling belongs to the male or female sex only after 4-6 years after the appearance of flower buds. It is easy to grow a new tree from seeds, but there is one drawback - all the qualities of the parent variety are not inherited during reproduction.
Important! The main advantage of seed reproduction is the fact that sea buckthorn from seeds does not inherit diseases of the mother tree.
In order to fully preserve the parental qualities of the variety, the tree is propagated by layering or cuttings. This method is effective if the feature of the variety is the absence of overgrowth.
Reproduction by offspring or by dividing the bush does not always help to maintain parental qualities. If the tree has grown from grafting, then a completely different sea buckthorn will go from the root processes.
Reproduction of sea buckthorn by root shoots
One of the easiest ways to get a new seedling is to propagate sea buckthorn by root suckers growing near the mother bush. The disadvantage of this method is getting the vegetative organ of injury. The root system of an adult tree grows strongly. To inflict less damage, the offspring dig up the one that is at least 1.5 m away from the mother plant. Such a growth already has its own formed roots.
In this way, it is better to propagate sea buckthorn in the spring, but the pits for transplantation are prepared in the fall. The offspring is carefully dug in with a shovel from all sides, removed together with a lump of earth, and transferred to a new place. After transplanting, the seedling is regularly watered and fed.
How to propagate sea buckthorn by cuttings
If you need to completely preserve the varietal characteristics, sea buckthorn can be propagated by cuttings, but a lot of effort will have to be made to achieve the result.
In order to successfully propagate sea buckthorn by cuttings in the spring, blanks of the material are made in the fall. At the end of November, woody twigs with a thickness of more than 5 mm are taken from the plant. Cuttings 15–20 cm long are cut from intact areas with live buds. The best way to preserve is to bury the material in the snow until spring.
The site for planting lignified sea buckthorn cuttings is prepared in the fall. The soil is dug to the depth of the bayonet, 9 kg of compost is applied per 1 m2... In the spring, the site is loosened again and the soil is leveled. For cuttings, a bed is made 1 m wide, it is advisable to equip a small hill. Paths are trampled along the perimeter.
Further propagation of sea buckthorn by cuttings provides for the awakening of the kidneys. In spring, twigs are soaked in warm melt water two weeks before planting. During this time, root rudiments may hatch. Planting of cuttings is carried out in warm weather, when the soil warms up to a temperature of +5about C. The twig is immersed in the ground so that 2-3 buds remain on the surface. The planted cuttings are watered abundantly, the soil is mulched with dry humus.
In order for the successful reproduction of sea buckthorn by cuttings in spring, the soil moisture is monitored daily. The material will take root only in dampness. Watering short cuttings is done daily. The soil under the long branches can be moistened every four days, but it is better not to dry it out.
By the end of the season, a full-fledged sea buckthorn seedling grows from the established cuttings. The next spring, it is transplanted to a permanent place. A seedling with a root length of 20 cm, a stem height of 50 cm and a neck thickness of 8 mm is considered good.
The advantage of the propagation method is the simplicity and preservation of the varietal qualities of the mother bush. The disadvantage is the low survival rate of cuttings in dry spring.
Harder to reproduce sea buckthorn cuttings in summer. The material is green twigs cut from the plant in June or July. The length of the cuttings is about 10 cm. The upper and lower cut are made on the branches with a sharp knife. The heteroauxin tablet is diluted in one liter of water and the prepared planting material is soaked for 16 hours.
Further propagation of sea buckthorn by green cuttings provides for the preparation of the landing site. The soil on the bed is made light with a lot of peat. Set up a reliable transparent shelter. A glass jar or film can act as a greenhouse.
Attention! Green cuttings help to carry out vegetative propagation of sea buckthorn, with the help of which it is possible to completely preserve the varietal characteristics of the mother bush.
After soaking, the twigs are washed with clean water, buried 4 cm into the ground. Watering is carried out with a weak solution of potassium permanganate to protect against the black leg. Green cuttings are under cover until they are fully engrafted. The seedling is transplanted to a new place in a year.
Experienced gardeners talk on video about the propagation of sea buckthorn by cuttings in spring, as well as other methods:
Reproduction of sea buckthorn by layering
The method of propagation by layering helps to completely preserve the maternal qualities of the bush. In early summer, a groove is dug near the tree. The lowest branch is bent to the ground, pinned with a stiff wire. The layering is covered with humus, leaving only the top in the air. Watering is carried out daily in summer. By the fall, the cuttings will take root. In the spring, the branch is cut off from the mother bush, the strongest seedlings are selected and transferred to a permanent place.
Important! The disadvantage of reproduction by layering is the exposure of the lower part of the mother bush.
How to propagate by dividing the bush
The method is appropriate if a plant transplant is envisaged. Reproduction of sea buckthorn is carried out in the spring before the beginning of sap flow or in late autumn. In the second option, the time is chosen when the process of calmness of the seedling begins, but before the onset of frost.
The bush is deeply dug around the trunk, trying to minimize damage to the roots. The plant is removed from the ground, all damaged branches are cut with a pruner. The root system is carefully freed from the ground. The bush is divided into parts with a pruner or a sharp knife. Each new seedling must remain with full roots. Delenki are seated in prepared holes.
Reproduction of sea buckthorn seeds
Growing sea buckthorn from seeds at home is not very profitable. You will have to wait a long time before the start of fruiting. In addition, the varietal characteristics of the mother bush may not be preserved. The method is suitable for mass reproduction in order to strengthen the slopes of ravines, planting forest belts, and obtain a large amount of rootstock.
How to plant sea buckthorn seeds
The seeds are collected from ripe berries. The best way is to use a wine press. First, juice is squeezed out of the berries. The seeds are separated from the remnants of the skin and pulp of the fruit, washed with water, dried in the shade.
Important! From 1 kg of berries, 2 to 3 thousand grains are obtained. Seeds are stored for up to three years.
To grow sea buckthorn from seeds, grains are stratified before planting. The easiest way is to bury them in the sand. More precisely, you need to make a mash. Take 1 part of seeds, mix with 3 parts of sand, send to a cold place for 40 days. The air temperature should be from 0 to + 5 ° C. Mix twice every week. After pecking seeds, they are covered with snow to inhibit growth.
There is a variant of alternating stratification. The method is based on keeping seeds at a temperature of +10about C for 5 days, after which the grains are sent for 30 days in the cold - about +2about FROM.
Sowing is best done in the spring in a greenhouse. If the option of open ground is considered, then the dates are the earliest after the snow melts. The seeds will germinate in 10 days. The sprouts will pick up moisture from the ground to the maximum before the onset of heat.
The seeds are sown in the grooves. Cut grooves 5 cm deep. A 2 cm layer of a mixture of equal amounts of peat and sand is poured onto the bottom. Between the grooves, a row spacing of 15 cm is maintained.
Growing sea buckthorn from seeds at home
When growing sea buckthorn seedlings at home, seedlings may become thickened. Thinning is carried out twice:
- when the first pair of leaves appears between the plants, a flight of 3 cm is made;
- when the fourth pair of leaves appears between the seedlings, the distance is increased to 8 cm.
The shoots from the first thinning can be transplanted for further cultivation.
In order for the seedling to have a well-formed root system, after the growth of two pairs of full-fledged leaves, a pick is carried out. Later, it is undesirable to do this, since the plants will inhibit growth and will need frequent abundant watering.
The best time for a dive is the second decade of June. Choose a cloudy day. After the procedure, a free span of 10 cm is obtained between the plants. The initial spacing remains - 15 cm. A sea buckthorn seedling grows in such conditions for 2 years. At the time of planting in a permanent place, the height of the seedling reaches 40 cm, the thickness is 5 mm.
Terms and rules for transplanting sea buckthorn seedlings into open ground
The cultivation of sea buckthorn from seeds is completed by planting a seedling in a permanent place in open ground. If the operation is carried out in the fall, then the hole is prepared a month before the start of the process. When planting in spring, the hole is prepared in the fall.
A hole for a sea buckthorn seedling is dug 40x50 cm in size. The upper fertile layer of earth is used for backfilling. 1 bucket of sand and compost, 0.8 kg of ash, 200 g of superphosphate are added to the soil.
A sea buckthorn seedling is carefully placed together with a lump of earth at the bottom of the hole. The prepared mixture is backfilled so that the root collar remains 7 cm peeking out of the ground. After planting, the plant is watered, covered with peat mulch.
Seedling care rules
After any method of propagation, a new sea buckthorn seedling needs care. The first three years do not add top dressing. Enough fertilizer added during planting. Until the tree takes root, regular watering is carried out. Maintains slightly damp soil, but does not create swamp.
Young leaves of sea buckthorn are not averse to pests. Preventive spraying with chemicals can help.
In the first years of life, in early spring or late autumn, pruning is carried out, which helps the sea buckthorn to form a crown. All damaged and improperly growing branches are removed.
From the fourth year of life, the sea buckthorn begins an active growth of the crown. During spring pruning, branches parallel to the trunk are removed. Even fruiting shoots are thinned out. Normalizing the berries will relieve the bush from exhaustion.
Sanitary pruning of sea buckthorn is performed in autumn. The tree is freed from dry and affected branches.
Reproduction of sea buckthorn can be carried out even by a novice gardener. The culture takes root well, and the shoots of many varieties are even difficult to remove from the site. There is another way to reproduce sea buckthorn - grafting. However, skills are required here. Experienced gardeners can propagate sea buckthorn by grafting.