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You can grow a pomegranate in your own summer cottage, and you don't have to make much effort for this. The pomegranate requires routine maintenance, although there are some general rules regarding its cultivation.
Where is pomegranate grown?
Pomegranate is a very ancient plant, the cultivation of which began in time immemorial. Initially, pomegranate grew in Central Asia, Turkey, Transcaucasia and Iran. However, then it spread to the Mediterranean countries, got to North Africa and southern Europe, and as a result, it now grows in almost all countries with tropical and subtropical climates.
In Russia, pomegranates can be found mainly in the southern regions - in the Crimea and the Azov region, in the Krasnodar Territory and warm places in the North Caucasus. Sometimes you can find a plant in the middle lane, but such plantings are extremely rare. The fact is that pomegranates are very thermophilic, and planting and caring for pomegranates in the open field in regions with frosty winters is simply impossible.
Winter hardiness of pomegranate
For a heat-loving plant that feels most comfortable in the subtropics, pomegranate is quite cold-resistant, it can withstand short frosts down to -15 ° C. But, unfortunately, this does not make it truly winter-hardy, and the frost resistance of the pomegranate remains very low. None of the varieties are able to safely endure the long cold winter.
Already at - 18 ° C, the plant begins to freeze, the entire aerial part of the pomegranate dies off, up to the root collar. If the temperature drops even lower, the root system of the pomegranate also perishes. The ideal temperature for a pomegranate in winter is not lower than -15 ° C, in such conditions it feels comfortable.
Conditions for growing pomegranate
In general, pomegranate can be considered a rather unpretentious plant, it is not too picky about the quality of the soil, it calmly reacts to a short drought or slight waterlogging. It is easy to create conditions for him to grow - it is enough to pick up a site with light neutral soil.
But at the same time, pomegranate makes 2 categorical requirements for growing conditions. He needs light and warmth, with a lack of sun and in a cold climate, the tree will not be able to develop. For outdoor cultivation, it is necessary to plant pomegranates in a well-lit area of the garden and, which is much more difficult, throughout the year not to allow the temperature to drop below -15 ° C.
When to plant pomegranate
In open ground, heat-loving pomegranates are planted in spring, usually in late April or early May. By the time of disembarkation, the air should warm up stably to + 10-14 ° С, and daylight hours should increase significantly compared to the winter period.
Important! Planting pomegranates earlier than the specified period is dangerous, including due to the likely return of frosts, even mild negative temperatures can destroy a seedling that has not had time to take root in the ground.
Where to plant pomegranates on the site
The plant is unpretentious in relation to the soil, but sensitive to the amount of sunlight. Therefore, growing and caring for pomegranates should be carried out on a well-lit, warm side of the garden. It is best to place the grenade on a hill, be sure to make sure that the light of the grenade is not blocked by taller trees or walls of buildings.
Pomegranate soil prefers sandy loam or loamy, it should be well-drained, loose and saturated with oxygen, neutral or slightly acidic.
How to properly plant a pomegranate in open ground
The success of growing pomegranate in the open field largely depends on the literacy of its planting. There are several ways to root a pomegranate tree in your garden.
How to plant a pomegranate seedling
Growing a seedling is the easiest and most convenient way, since such a pomegranate is easiest to take root in the ground and quickly begins to bloom and bear fruit.
Preparation for planting a pomegranate in open ground must be started in advance, at least a month in advance. The soil in the selected area is carefully dug up and cleaned of weeds, then humus is added to it in an amount of 5 kg per meter, and then the area is covered with an impenetrable material so that a useful microflora is formed in the ground.
The landing algorithm is as follows:
- at the end of April or the beginning of May, a hole is dug in the prepared area about 80 cm deep and 60 cm in diameter;
- high, even pegs are installed in the center of the hole for the subsequent garnet tie;
- 10 cm of expanded clay, gravel or broken brick is laid on the bottom of the pit, earth, fertile soil mixed with humus and sand is poured on top of the hill, while the top of the hill should reach the edge of the hole;
- the seedling is carefully lowered to the top of the earthen slide, the roots are spread along its sides, and then the hole is covered with earth to the end;
- the seedling is tied to pegs, and then the earth is lightly tamped around the trunk, a low earthen shaft is formed around the circumference, and the plant is watered.
It is impossible to plant a pomegranate in the fall - a young plant that has not had time to take root properly is unlikely to be able to endure even a moderately cold winter.
Attention! When planting, it is important to monitor the position of the root collar, it should remain above ground level.
How to plant pomegranate cuttings
Growing a pomegranate from a cutting is another way to root a pomegranate tree in your area. Cuttings are used less often than seedlings, but the method is well suited if you need to increase the pomegranate population from an existing bush.
Before cutting the pomegranate, it is necessary to cut the required number of shoots from the mother bush. It is best to take cuttings from young, but already beginning to woody branches, at least 6 buds should remain on each of the cuttings.
- Shoots are usually harvested in the fall, since before the spring planting, pomegranate cuttings must be kept in cool conditions.
- The harvested shoots are wiped with a cloth dipped in a weak solution of copper sulfate, allowed to dry naturally and the ends are wrapped with a damp cloth. Then the cuttings are placed in a plastic bag and put on the top shelf of the refrigerator until spring. It is recommended to check the shoots about once a month and moisturize the fabric as needed.
- In early April, the cuttings are taken out of the refrigerator and placed with their lower end in a container half filled with warm water for a month. It is necessary to put the container in a warm, but shaded place; water is added as it evaporates.
- In early May, prepared cuttings are planted directly in open ground - the stage of rooting shoots in pots is usually skipped. To plant pomegranate cuttings, it is necessary to choose a time when the return frosts have already ended, and the soil has warmed up to at least + 12 ° C in depth.
- For growing cuttings, a place is selected that meets the basic requirements of a pomegranate for soil and lighting, small holes are dug in the ground - when deepening above the surface of the earth, only 1 bud of the cutting should remain.
- If several cuttings are planned to be planted at once, then gaps of about 20 cm are left between them, so that later the plants do not interfere with each other's development.
- The cuttings are lowered into the holes, slightly tilting to the sunny side, and the depression is covered with earth, and then the young plant is spud up to the remaining bud.
The planted stalk must be carefully watered and subsequently moistened once a week. From time to time, the soil is loosened for better oxygen supply, and fertilizing is also applied once a week - first superphosphate, then complex, consisting of potassium, superphosphate and urea.
Rooting of cuttings takes about 2 months. After this time, young pomegranates are carefully dug up and their condition is assessed. A well-rooted stalk should reach about half a meter in height, have at least 4 lateral branches and well-developed roots. If the cutting meets these requirements, it can be transferred to a permanent location with similar growing conditions.
How to plant a pomegranate tree from a bone
Growing pomegranate from a stone is rarely practiced for open ground, usually seedlings are so weak that they simply do not take root in the soil. Therefore, it is better to cultivate with a bone for cultivation of pomegranate in room conditions, or to transplant the plant into the soil after it has become qualitatively strong.
For sowing, take several seeds and place them in small containers with the usual soil for pomegranates. The bones are lightly sprinkled with earth, watered, cover the containers with foil and put away in a bright place without direct sunlight. Seedlings usually appear in 2-3 weeks, after which the film can be removed. Pomegranate seedlings are regularly watered, fed with complex fertilizers every 1.5-2 weeks and periodically transplanted into larger containers.
Advice! When the pomegranate gets stronger, after hardening in the fresh air, it can be planted on the site or left as a room culture.
How to grow pomegranate in the country
Correct planting is only the first step in growing a pomegranate. To get a strong and fruiting tree, you need to take good care of it and grow pomegranates step by step according to proven algorithms.
Watering and feeding
Pomegranate does not have particularly strict requirements for the amount of moisture and fertilizers. But for the rapid growth of a young tree and subsequent stable yields, it is worth following the basic rules.
Water the pomegranate about once a week, in the hot dry months - twice or three times a week. The soil around the pomegranate should not be waterlogged, but the soil should always remain slightly moistened. After watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil - this will not allow moisture to stagnate and saturate the soil with oxygen.
As for feeding, in the first year the pomegranate will have enough fertilizers applied during planting. In the second year of life, you will need to feed the tree again with nitrogenous fertilizers in early spring and with complex solutions closer to autumn, before fruiting.
Caring for pomegranate seedlings and adult plants in the open field necessarily includes pruning. The pomegranate should be formed in the form of a spreading shrub or tree on a low trunk with a large number of side branches. A pomegranate seedling is usually cut at a height of about 75 cm along the central shoot, the lowest and weakest branches are removed and about 4-5 developed shoots are left.
In subsequent years, pomegranates are pruned at the tops of the branches by about a third of the annual growth. Every year it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, which consists in the removal of root growth, as well as broken, dry and weak shoots.
Protection against diseases and pests
Pomegranate is a fairly resistant crop to diseases and pests, but some insects and fungal ailments threaten this plant as well.
- Of the fungi for pomegranate, branch cancer is especially dangerous. The disease is manifested primarily by cracking of the bark, drying out of the shoots and the appearance on the branches of the tree of ulcers with porous growths along the edges. Most often, cancer is provoked by low temperatures in winter, which weaken the pomegranate tree. For the treatment of the plant, a thorough sanitary pruning is carried out and the sections are treated with fungicidal agents, and subsequently the pomegranate is qualitatively insulated during cold weather.
- Of the pests, the pomegranate aphid is a threat to the pomegranate, which settles on young shoots and leaves of the plant. You can get rid of it with insecticides, homemade soap and tobacco solutions.
- The pomegranate moth can also harm the pomegranate, it lays eggs right in the cup of the fruit of an adult pomegranate or in damaged areas of the peel, and the caterpillars that appear eat the pomegranate fruits from the inside, which leads to rotting of the pomegranates. Pest control is carried out by spraying with insecticides even at the stage of fruit setting.
For preventive purposes, it is recommended to carefully monitor the condition of pomegranate shoots and leaves and remove all diseased parts in a timely manner. In addition, during the fruiting period, the fall fruits that fall to the ground should be collected and destroyed so that the fruits, when rotted, do not turn into an ideal breeding ground for bacteria and insects.
Preparing for winter
Warming a plant for the winter is the most important step in growing a pomegranate tree. Since at temperatures below -10 ° C, the thermophilic tree begins to freeze out, immediately after harvesting, they begin to prepare it for wintering.
- The lower branches of the pomegranate are tilted close to the ground and tied to pegs so that they do not straighten.
- Leaves and young shoots, important for fruiting, are treated with Bordeaux liquid, and a dense layer of fertile soil is poured around the trunk and the soil is mulched with a layer of up to 15 cm.
- Spruce branches are laid around the trunk, trying to close the branches of the pomegranate as much as possible.
It is not necessary to remove the winter shelter with the onset of spring immediately, but only after a stable positive temperature has been established. After removing the spruce branches, the pomegranates are carefully treated with fungicides in order to exclude the development of fungus on the surface of the tree and in the soil near the trunk.
Features of growing pomegranate outdoors in different regions
Growing pomegranate is best done in a subtropical climate in the southernmost regions of the country. However, subject to the correct agricultural technology, it is possible to grow pomegranates in colder regions, although in this case the pomegranate will require increased attention from the gardener.
Growing pomegranate in Crimea
Crimea is ideal for growing a pomegranate tree - throughout the year it is exactly the kind of weather that pomegranate prefers. Planting and caring for a pomegranate in Crimea consists in the fact that the pomegranate is watered and fed in a timely manner, as well as regular formative and sanitary pruning is carried out.
Since the winters in Crimea are quite warm, before the onset of cold weather, it is enough to carefully cover the pomegranates with spruce branches and mulch the ground around the trunk with a thick layer. This must be done at the end of October, after the end of fruiting.
Growing pomegranate in the Krasnodar Territory
The Krasnodar Region is another comfortable zone for grenades in Russia. As in the Crimea, winters are mild here, so gardeners can only carry out basic care of the pomegranate - watering, feeding and regular pruning.
Since even in warm winters, pomegranate can freeze very much, it is necessary to cover and thoroughly mulch the tree before the onset of cold weather. But temperatures up to -10 ° C or -15 ° C, with elementary care, pomegranates can calmly endure.
Growing pomegranate in the suburbs
Pomegranate in central Russia takes root with great difficulty, since even warm winters in the Moscow region are accompanied by at least a couple of weeks of severe frosts. When the temperature drops below -15 ° C or -17 ° C, the pomegranate will inevitably freeze, at best above the surface of the earth, and at worst - to the very roots.
In isolated cases, gardeners manage to provide a pomegranate with a safe wintering by erecting a real "house" above the plant from materials impervious to snow and wind and covering such a hut with spruce branches and dense snow. However, pomegranates rarely bloom in such conditions, and you can not expect fruiting from them at all. If you want to grow pomegranates specifically for obtaining juicy fruits, you should use a closed heated greenhouse.
Growing pomegranate in Siberia
In the harsh climatic conditions of Siberia, pomegranate does not grow under the open sky, there are no winters so mild that a thermophilic tree could safely endure them. However, even in Siberia, it is possible to grow a pomegranate tree in a greenhouse, a greenhouse or indoors.
Pomegranate fruiting begins in the fall, and the harvest is usually harvested in October. It is quite simple to understand that the fruits are ripe - pomegranates acquire a uniform red or yellowish-pink color, depending on the variety. At this point, they must be removed from the branches, as overripe fruits may crack or fall to the ground and rot.
Pomegranate fruits are stored for a long time, and they need to be kept at a temperature of about 2 degrees with good ventilation. You can't leave pomegranates on an open balcony or veranda in winter at freezing temperatures, this will cause the fruits to rot.
Growing a pomegranate is easy when it comes to planting a plant in a warm subtropical climate. For growing in the middle lane and in the north, pomegranates are poorly suited, however, in a greenhouse, pomegranates can be planted even in Siberia.
Reviews about growing pomegranate
Troyanova Alexandra Vladimirovna, 38 years old, Krasnodar
On my site, the pomegranate tree has been growing for about 7 years and so far I have not encountered serious problems when growing. Of course, for the winter, pomegranates have to be insulated more thoroughly than other shrubs and trees, but it takes a little time, and the result is worth it.
Petrova Marina Viktorovna, 43 years old, Moscow
I have been growing pomegranate on my site in the Moscow region for 3 years. In the autumn-winter period, the tree requires a lot of attention, the issue of winter insulation has to be approached really responsibly. But so far the pomegranate manages to endure winters, although it does not bear fruit.