Hot pepper varieties for open ground

Hot pepper varieties for open ground

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Bitter peppers are grown in our country less often than sweet peppers, but they are extremely useful. Today, on store shelves, you can find a large number of interesting varieties, which are difficult to understand. The gardener, who for the first time decided to grow one of the varieties of bitter spicy pepper in the open field, will have a difficult time: the choice is large, all the peppers are beautiful. Which one to choose? We will discuss this problem and tell you about the secrets of growing.

A few words about hot pepper

Pepper is a plant native to Central America that is thermophilic and delicious. It is divided into two subspecies:

  • Bell pepper;
  • bitter pepper.

Bitter differs from sweet by the presence in its composition of capsaicin, a substance that gives bitterness. Both types of pepper are rich in vitamins A, B and C. The fruits are very healthy.

Important! Pepper is a self-pollinated plant, it is not worth growing bitter and sweet varieties in close proximity to each other, otherwise their taste will be violated.

Sweet pepper will have notes of bitterness and vice versa.

On our counters there are mainly sweet peppers, but hot spicy peppers are gaining more and more popularity. Based on the fact that the climate in most regions of Russia is rather harsh, growing pepper in the open field is not available to all summer residents. There are certain growing conditions and rules that you should adhere to.

Growing conditions

Currently, there are about 2000 varieties of hot pepper in the world. Some of them are extremely sharp and irritate the skin even when touched.

If we compare sweet and bitter varieties, then it is the latter that require more heat and sun. For the entire territory of the country, it is most advisable to grow this crop by seedling method due to the acute shortage of a long warm period required for ripening. That is why, first, the seedlings of bitter pepper grow on the windowsills, and then they are planted in open ground.

You can grow some varieties in a seedless way, but only in the Crimea or Krasnodar Territory. In general, the conditions for growing hot peppers are no different from those for sweet ones:

  • loose light soils;
  • high-quality watering;
  • fertilization;
  • warm climatic conditions.

Is it difficult to grow hot peppers on your own? No, it's not difficult. The summer resident will need to carefully read the information on the seed package and our practical advice.

Let's talk directly about the seeds of bitter pepper. Arriving at the store, the gardener will need to make a choice in favor of one or more varieties. What should you pay attention to?

  • Ripening rate (correlate with the length of summer in your area);
  • on the yield of the variety;
  • resistance to viruses and diseases;
  • on taste.

These are the main parameters for choosing seeds.

The best varieties of hot pepper

We will present several varieties of spicy peppers that can be selected for independent cultivation in the open field. Also, a comparative table will be presented below, according to which it will be easy to compare one variety with another.

So, the most common and familiar varieties and hybrids:

  • Aladdin;
  • Sharp decorative;
  • Ukrainian;
  • Aleksinsky;
  • Aurora 81;
  • Indian Spear;
  • Red fat man;
  • Astrakhan A-60;
  • Astrakhan 147;
  • Mother-in-law's language;
  • Elephant trunk;
  • Indian elephant;
  • Eagle claw;
  • Vizier;
  • Ryabinushka;
  • Homer;
  • Falcon's beak;
  • Scimitar;
  • Shakira;
  • Spagnola;
  • Zmey Gorynych;
  • Miracle of the Moscow Region;
  • Chinese fire;
  • Super chili;
  • Burning nose;
  • Hungarian spicy.

Let's study the comparative characteristics of the above varieties.

Comparison table

Variety or hybrid nameRipening rate (in days)Resistant to diseases, viruses and growing conditionsNote and degree of bitternessProductivity (in kg per 1 m2)
Alexinskymid-season, up to 145to major diseasespleasant bright aroma, it is possible to grow on a windowsill3-4
Aladdinearly, 125 maximumto the top rotmedium, good storage13-18,8
Aurora 81mid-season, 140-145to major diseasesfragrant ornamental fruit1-2
Astrakhan A-60early, 115-130to the tobacco mosaic virusmedium, long fruiting period2-3
Astrakhan 147early ripe, 122pepper is plastic and disease resistantvery sharp coarse pulp, can be used for medicinal purposesup to 2.8
Sharp decorativemid-season, up to 140tolerates low light wellplants are low, can be grown in the house, medium pungency2-3
Ukrainianearly, 112-120to potato virus and TMV, tolerates short-term drop in air temperature wellvery bitter1-1,2
Viziermid-seasondisease resistantturban-shaped, rare in itself, medium bitternessup to 3
Eagle clawmid-season, from 135to major diseasesvery sharp flesh with a thick wall4-4,2
Indian spearearly, 125disease resistantvery bitter, tall bush2-2,3
Red fat manmedium early, 125-135to major diseasesslight bitterness, juiciness, thick wallmaximum 2.9
Falcon beakmedium early, 125-135to major diseases, easily tolerates short-term drought, but is picky about lightingsmall pepper very bitter with a thick wall2,4-2,6
Indian elephantmedium early, 125-135to major diseases, easily tolerates short-term drought, but is picky about lightinglarge pepper with a slight bitterness3-3,5
Miracle of the Moscow regionearly, 125to major diseases, easily tolerates short-term drought, but is picky about lightingthe fruit is large, the bush is tall, the pungency of the fruit is medium3,6-3,9
Scimitarultra-early ripening, 75resistant to heat and major diseaseslong sharp fruits2-3
Shakiraearly, 125drought and major diseaseslarge fruits with a very thick wall, medium bitterness2-3,4
Ryabinushkamedium early, 142disease-resistant varietyvery small fragrant fruits0,8-1
Hungarian spicyearly maturing, up to 125to the top rotbeautiful yellow color of medium pungency13-18,8
Zmey Gorynychmedium early, 125-135to major diseasesvery spicy fruits2-2,8
Elephant trunkmid-season, up to 156to major diseasesmoderately sharp, largeup to 22
Mother-in-law's tongueearly grade, up to 115drought and major diseaseslarge, medium bitterness2-3,2
Chinese firemid-season, 145disease resistantmedium-sized fruit, very bitter2-2,8
Superchiliultra early, 70to the top rotmedium bitter13-18,8
Burning nosemid-season, 135resistant to some diseases and short-term droughtsweet spicy3-3,8
Spagnolaearly, 115drought resistant, demanding lightingvery tall bush, spicy flesh2-4
Homerearly, 125to the main diseases of pepper culturetall bush, fruits are arranged in a bouquet, fragrant, slightly spicy taste2-3,2

High yield, when at least 10 kilograms of pepper can be harvested from one square meter, is achieved due to large, heavy fruits. If the pepper is decorative, then such a yield cannot be achieved. For a good overview of the pepper varieties, see the video below. You can also learn how to choose the right pepper for your garden.

Bitter peppers can be canned, used as a seasoning, or eaten fresh. Everyone has their own preferences in this regard. Outdoor hot pepper grows well on the sunny south side of the site, protected from wind and drafts.

The principle of selection of varieties

Seeds of varietal peppers, bought in stores, germinate well, since agricultural firms carefully select them, disinfect and harden them. Of course, negligence cannot be completely ruled out, because even with the low cost of bags with seed, there are a large number of fakes on the market.

All bitter peppers are divided into:

  • decorative;
  • standard.

Ornamental peppers are notable for their low bush growth, they can be grown right on the windowsill.

Standard bitter peppers are much larger than decorative ones, they are less whimsical and demanding.

Imported varieties

They are just gaining popularity with us, many gardeners order seeds via the Internet. The most popular varieties:

  • Jalapeno;
  • Tabasco;
  • Habanero;
  • Carolina Riper;
  • Hungarian.

These varieties are further subdivided into several types. They differ in color, sharpness of taste, plant height. When choosing a variety, they always pay attention to the degree of bitterness, because someone loves spicy peppers, and someone prefers only a piquant taste. Housewives give preference to aromatic varieties (we have specially marked them in the table), because it is very pleasant when bitter pepper also has a bright aroma.

Habanero is a popular wrinkled pepper in Mexico. It is sharp enough to grow outdoors. 120 days pass from germination to technical ripeness. They are very demanding on lighting, the pH of the soil should be 6.5 units.

Jalapeno pepper is quite spicy and popular all over the world. It has a thick wall and beautiful bright fruits. Pepper is demanding on heat and light. It is early, 95-100 days pass from germination to technical ripeness. It is recommended to grow it outdoors only in the south of the country. This is due to the fact that the plant does not tolerate temperatures below +18 degrees.

Pepper variety "Tabasco" is well known to us for the sauce of the same name. He is originally from Mexico, where he is very much loved. The fruits are very pungent, but at the same time fragrant and piquant. Ripening reaches 131 days, pepper is very unpretentious and suitable for open ground. The temperature should not be allowed to drop below +15, otherwise you will not see ovaries.

We have already described the famous "Hungarian" variety above. In fact, this variety is very widely represented in the world. As a rule, all types of it belong to the early ones with a ripening period of up to 100 days and the possibility of growing in the open field. Loves light. Above, in the table, we described the yellow Hungarian pepper, the photo below shows the black one.

Bitter pepper of the Carolina Riper variety is one of the most famous peppers in the world. It is known not only for its appearance, but also for being included in the Guinness Book as the sharpest on the planet. It was bred in the USA and it is impossible to taste it fresh. It is most often used to make hot sauces. Ripens up to 145 days. Extremely photophilous.

The most bitter varieties

For those who value the bitterness of the fruit, which residents of countries such as Thailand, Mexico, Korea cannot do without, you should pay attention to the video below:

Bitterness is rated on a special Scoville scale. Sometimes you can find these varieties on the shelves of our stores. Sometimes they are ordered through online stores or brought from travel. Described above is the "Carolina Riper" variety, which is considered one of the most bitter.

Of the varieties of bitter pepper presented by us for open ground of domestic selection, the most acute are "Chinese Fire", "Serpent Gorynych", "Falcon's Beak" and "Indian Spear". Let's talk in more detail about how to grow spicy peppers outdoors.

Growing hot peppers outdoors

Let's touch on growing using a seedling method, which is suitable for any region. Planting seeds also needs to be done wisely. You cannot sow them:

  • on the new moon;
  • in the full moon.

This is important as the seedlings will be sluggish and yields will drop dramatically. You need to plant seedlings either in separate cups or in peat tablets. Make sure the soil is suitable for the pepper crop. It should have an acidity of not higher than 7.0, and also be light. The same rule applies to peat tablets.

Seedlings grow for a long time, they are additionally highlighted. Pepper needs light 12 hours a day. For some of our districts, this is a lot. Experienced summer residents use special lamps for lighting. The air temperature should be above +22 degrees, but below +30. The optimum temperature is 27 degrees above zero. Under such conditions, the bitter pepper will grow faster.

All information on the seed package corresponds to the conditions in which this plant is to be grown.

Seedlings are planted in open ground at the moment when they are sufficiently strong. There should be about 6 real leaves on it. The soil requirements are the same:

  • looseness;
  • ease;
  • fertility.

The seedling area should be sunny. It cannot be buried in the ground, on the contrary, the beds are made high, organic matter is introduced in a week, which will give the root system additional heat. Watering is carried out with warm water, when it gets cold, it is necessary to cover the peppers. Basically, the process of growing peppers is very similar to growing tomatoes. Fertilizers are additionally applied. After planting bitter pepper in open ground, this process is carried out three times. You can use:

  • organic fertilizers (just not clean fresh manure);
  • phosphate fertilizers;
  • potash fertilizers;
  • mineral dressings based on sodium (except for chloride).

The plant reacts very positively to such a comprehensive care from the gardener. If done correctly, hot peppers in the open field will yield a large harvest.

Watch the video: PEPPERS: From the Field (May 2022).

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